At a Glance

Pakistan lies in a mostly arid and semi-arid geographic area prone to recurring large-scale floods, earthquakes, droughts, and landslides. Natural disasters, which already disrupt livelihoods and the economy, are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. Projected temperature increases are expected to be above global averages, negatively impacting agricultural production, water availability, and human health. In addition, sea level rise and saline intrusion threaten coastal infrastructure, agricultural lands, and aquifers in large cities and the adjoining Indus deltaic region. Current water scarcity is expected to be exacerbated by higher temperatures and longer, more intense droughts. The energy sector contributes nearly half of overall greenhouse gas emissions, followed by agriculture, land-use change and forestry, industrial processes, and waste.

    Climate Projections and Impacts

    Refer to the Climate Risk Profile (2017) for more information.

    Climate Projections

    Drought icon

    Increased Drought Frequency

    Increased Frequency/Severity of Natural Disasters

    Increased/More Frequent Precipitation

    Increased Temperature

    Key Climate Impact Areas




    Human Health


    Funding and Key Indicators

    Refer to metadata and sources for more details.

    USAID Climate Change Funding (2020)



    GAIN Vulnerability


    Population (2020)

    233.5 Million

    GHG Emissions Growth


    % Forested Area


    Climate Change Information

    Pakistan Photo Gallery

    Stories from the Area

    To mitigate the food security and economic risks of South Asia’s frequent and intense droughts, scientists and policymakers from the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) recently joined forces to launch an innovative decision support and agricultural planning system.