Women planting mangroves in Zanzibar


At a Glance

Tanzania is one of the largest countries in East Africa, with diverse topography that gives rise to four distinct climate zones. Most of the population lives in rural areas that are dependent on rainfed agriculture which is threatened by increasing temperatures, longer dry spells, and intense rain events. Much of the population also depends on coastal and inland fisheries, which are vulnerable to sedimentation as well as warming ocean and freshwater temperatures. Despite abundant water resources, Tanzania experiences spatial and temporal water scarcity, which will be exacerbated by climate impacts on the country's nine major river basins and the continent's three largest lakes. These factors also increase risks for the country's hydropower system. Diarrheal diseases and malaria, both leading causes of death in Tanzania, are likely to escalate, particularly in urban settlements where poor infrastructure increases vulnerabilities to flooding and heat extremes. Tanzania's highest emitting sector is land-use change and forestry, followed by agriculture.

Climate Projections and Impacts

Refer to the Climate Risk Profile (2018) for more information.

Climate Projections


Drought icon

Increased Incidence of Dry Spells/Droughts & Increased Heat Wave Duration


Increased/More Frequent Precipitation


Sea Level Rise


Increased Temperature

Key Climate Impacts



Energy & Infrastructure

Human Health

Water Resources

Funding and Key Indicators

USAID Climate Change Funding (2020)


$2 Million


$2 Million

GAIN Vulnerability


Population (2020)

58.55 Million

GHG Emissions Growth


% Forested Area


Climate Change Information

Tanzania Photo Gallery

Stories from the Area

Climate change is a complex global issue affecting all aspects of life and finding adaptive solutions can seem overwhelming. Integrating climate change adaptation into everyday life does not need to be so challenging.
Agricultural production in most developing countries is largely dependent on rainfall.
Complex relationships between the climate, population growth, land cover change, and other interactions make decisions on land use planning, water permitting, and donor investments in natural resources management challenging. Decision-making on how and where to make investments is improving in Tanzania due to development partners becoming more proficient in using sophisticated environmental analysis tools such as composite index mapping.