Women planting mangroves in Zanzibar


At a Glance

Tanzania is one of the largest countries in East Africa, with diverse topography that gives rise to four distinct climate zones. Most of the population lives in rural areas that are dependent on rainfed agriculture which is threatened by increasing temperatures, longer dry spells, and intense rain events. Much of the population also depends on coastal and inland fisheries, which are vulnerable to sedimentation as well as warming ocean and freshwater temperatures. Despite abundant water resources, Tanzania experiences spatial and temporal water scarcity, which will be exacerbated by climate impacts on the country's nine major river basins and the continent's three largest lakes. These factors also increase risks for the country's hydropower system. Diarrheal diseases and malaria, both leading causes of death in Tanzania, are likely to escalate, particularly in urban settlements where poor infrastructure increases vulnerabilities to flooding and heat extremes. Tanzania's highest emitting sector is land-use change and forestry, followed by agriculture.

Climate Projections and Impacts

Refer to the Climate Risk Profile (2018) for more information.

Climate Projections

Drought icon

Increased Incidence of Dry Spells/Droughts & Increased Heat Wave Duration

Increased/More Frequent Precipitation

Sea Level Rise

Increased Temperature

Key Climate Impacts



Energy & Infrastructure

Human Health

Water Resources

Funding and Key Indicators

USAID Climate Change Funding (2020)


$2 Million


$2 Million

GAIN Vulnerability


Population (2020)

58.55 Million

GHG Emissions Growth


% Forested Area


Climate Change Information

Tanzania Photo Gallery

Stories from the Area

The agriculture sector across the globe not only feeds the world’s population but it also provides nearly 27 percent of worldwide employment. Yet the sector faces significant sustainability challenges: it is estimated to contribute more than one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions through a combination of agricultural activities and land use changes, and it consumes, on average, 70 percent of the world’s freshwater resources.
Electrifying health facilities can be accomplished through one of two approaches: connecting to a utility grid or on-site generation. The combination of these two technologies is much cleaner than using diesel generators, the preferred mode of rural clinics for providing off-grid power, and over time is less expensive. Renewable energy solutions such as solar also reduce future greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change.
Despite the government’s deliberate initiatives to reach more people, Tanzania lags behind in its grid electricity connection targets. Only 24.5% of rural households in Tanzania have access to electricity. To help realize a future where all people enjoy the benefits of modern energy, Pact develops solutions and implements projects to expand access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy and the means to use energy productively.